Author Archives: Ryan Pethes

  1. Electrical Vehicles Market

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    Click to ExpandElectrical Vehicles Market

    Electrical vehicles (EVs) are taking center stage as the world shifts towards sustainable transportation. These are a category of cars that utilize motors powered by electricity stored in rechargeable batteries. Since they do not rely on gasoline like traditional internal combustion engine vehicles, EVs contribute to reduced emissions and environmental sustainability.

    This blog delves into the current state of the electrical vehicles market, examining the types of EVs available and the challenges faced by the industry. Additionally, we will explore how ESPE Manufacturing contributes to this transformative industry with its specialized electrical insulators.

    Types of Electric Vehicles

    The electrical vehicles market boasts an array of eco-friendly options for consumers, each catering to different needs and preferences:

    1. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

    BEVs are fully electric vehicles that operate solely on electric power. They are equipped with large battery packs that store electricity, eliminating the need for traditional internal combustion engines. BEVs offer zero-emission transportation, making them a popular choice for environmentally conscious consumers.

    2. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)

    A PHEV blends electric and internal combustion engine technologies. It operates on electric power for short distances before switching to a gasoline engine, offering flexibility for short and extended trips.

    3. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

    Similar to PHEVs, HEVs combine electric motors and internal combustion engines. However, they do not need external charging. They generate electric power through regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine, achieving improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional vehicles.

    4. Micro Electric Vehicles (Micro EVs)

    Micro EVs are compact electric vehicles designed for short-distance commuting in urban areas. They are often used for grocery shopping or navigating through congested city traffic, contributing to sustainable urban mobility solutions.

    Challenges Facing the EV Industry

    The EV market encounters various challenges that impact the widespread adoption and integration of these vehicles into the mainstream automotive market.

    One notable issue is range limitations, as consumers worry about running out of power before reaching their destination, especially in areas with limited charging infrastructure. Despite the notable uptick in EV charging stations, there is still a significant gap compared to traditional gas stations. EVs also face longer charging times versus quick refueling for gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Moreover, the high upfront cost of EVs is a deterrent to many people. Although incentives are in place in some regions to encourage EV adoption, making them more affordable without relying on subsidies remains a significant challenge.

    ESPE Manufacturing’s Role in EV Advancements

    ESPE Manufacturing stands at the forefront of supporting the electric vehicle revolution. We specialize in manufacturing electrical insulators for the electrical vehicles market to ensure the safety and efficiency of EVs. Our products find essential applications in various EV components, including:

    • Battery encapsulation: Electric vehicle batteries comprise multiple cells. Insulators encapsulate and isolate these cells, preventing short circuits and maintaining the battery pack’s structural integrity.
    • High-voltage wiring: EVs use high-voltage wiring for power transmission between the battery, electric motor, and other components. Integrated insulators contain high-voltage currents, preventing unintended interactions with the vehicle’s chassis or other conductive elements.
    • Power electronics: Electric insulators are incorporated into components like inverters and converters to prevent electrical leakage, enhance insulation, and ensure safe and efficient power conversion.
    • Electric motor insulation: Insulators insulate the motor windings and other components from the motor housing, preventing electrical shorts and ensuring the motor’s reliable operation.
    • Charging connectors and cables: During charging, electric insulators prevent faults and short circuits in connectors and cables that transfer power from the charging station to the vehicle’s battery.
    • Thermal management components: Electric insulators insulate heat sinks and thermal pads to aid effective heat dissipation. This prevents overheating and maintains optimal operating temperatures for the battery and electronic components.
    • Electronic control units (ECUs) and sensors: Various ECUs and sensors throughout an electric vehicle require insulation to prevent interference and ensure accurate data transmission.
    • Lithium Ion Fire Shielding: Safety barrier that protects the passenger cabin from battery fires caused by ruptures.

    ESPE Manufacturing: Your #1 Source of Quality Insulating Materials for the Electrical Vehicles Market

    At ESPE Manufacturing, we offer top-notch insulators for all electrical applications. Explore our diverse range of insulating options including Formex, Nomex, and Mylar — which are tailored to meet the demands of electric vehicles! Our experienced team can also help create customized insulator solutions that perfectly align with your needs.

    Contact us today to take the first step toward more efficient EV solutions.

  2. Lighting/LED Street Lamps

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    Click to ExpandLighting/LED Street Lamps

    As urban landscapes evolve and society seeks more sustainable fixtures, light-emitting diode (LED) street lights become a defining element of modern cityscapes. These lighting solutions are reshaping how we illuminate our streets, offering more benefits than traditional lighting methods.

    This article will delve into the technology and protective components behind LED systems, particularly their insulation materials. We will also discuss its positive impact on energy efficiency and the environment.

    The Technology and Components Behind LED Lights

    LED is a minute electronic device that emits light when subjected to an electrical current. It uses a special semiconductor material that creates light when electrons and tiny holes come together inside it — a phenomenon called electroluminescence. The color of the light emitted by LED devices depends on the material used. To make white light, some LEDs combine blue or ultraviolet light with a special coating called phosphor.

    Other components included in LED lights are the substrate, heat sink, power supply, and encapsulating material. In particular, the encapsulation material serves a critical role, shielding the LED chip from environmental factors while providing electrical insulation. This enhances the overall durability and safety of the LED system.

    Materials Used for Electrical Insulation in LED Lighting

    Several materials are used for electrical insulation in LED lighting to ensure the safety and proper functioning of the components. Here are some common materials employed for this purpose:


    Nomex is a high-performance aramid paper known for its exceptional heat resistance and flame-retardant qualities. It is the preferred choice in LED lighting installations where heat dissipation is a concern. It provides effective insulation in high-intensity applications, ensuring the components can withstand elevated temperatures without compromising performance.


    Formex is a flame-retardant, lightweight, and easily manufacturable material. It is best suited in applications where ease of manufacturing, folding, and weight are crucial considerations. Its versatility allows for efficient fabrication, contributing to cost-effective LED lighting solutions.


    Fishpaper is made from vulcanized fiber and is known for its durability, mechanical strength, and electrical insulating properties. It is often selected for its economic advantages and excellent flame resistance. This provides affordable and reliable insulation while ensuring safety in electrical components.

    Advantages of LED Street Lamps

    Compared to traditional lighting methods such as incandescent or fluorescent bulbs, LED lights offer numerous advantages:

    1. High Energy Efficiency

    LED lights are renowned for their superior energy efficiency. Traditional street lighting solutions waste a significant portion of energy as heat. In contrast, LEDs convert nearly all of their energy into visible light. This efficiency translates to less power required to illuminate streets, reducing electricity consumption and lowering operational costs.

    2. Long Lifespan

    LEDs have an exceptionally long operational life, thanks to their design. They can last several tens of thousands of hours, minimizing the need for frequent replacements and saving on maintenance time, costs, and resources.

    3. Positive Environmental Impact

    LED street lamps’ energy efficiency directly reduces carbon emissions by consuming less electricity. Additionally, they contain fewer hazardous materials than older lighting technologies, simplifying the disposal process and lowering the potential for environmental harm. LED lamps also contribute to a more sustainable waste management system by requiring fewer replacements and using fewer resources over their lifespan.

    Experience the Power of LED Lighting With ESPE Manufacturing

    Ready to take the first step toward a brighter and more sustainable future? Partner with ESPE Manufacturing Co.! We take pride in our 30,000 sq. ft. facility that houses state-of-the-art machinery. We are your top source of insulation material for LED lights, including Formex, Nomex, and fishpaper. Our range of high-quality products guarantees you the best components for your LED street lighting projects.

    Contact us today to learn more or request a quote for all your specialized electrical insulation needs!

  3. Electrical Generation From Wind

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    Click to ExpandElectrical Generation From Wind

    As global warming becomes a significant problem today, the quest for harnessing clean power sources has never been more crucial. One of the most promising avenues in this endeavor is electrical generation from wind. A renewable and sustainable source of power, wind energy has been used for centuries, primarily for activities such as grinding grain and pumping water. In modern times, it is converted into electricity and offers numerous advantages from its renewable nature to its potential for economic growth.

    This guide will delve into the intricacies of wind-based electrical generation and its technology. We’ll also examine its benefits, the challenges faced by the industry, and the emerging trends revolutionizing the field.

    How Do Rotors Work in Wind Energy Systems?

    Rotors play a pivotal role in the functionality of wind energy systems. These rotating components are integral parts of the turbine’s mechanism, contributing significantly to the conversion of wind power into electrical energy. The primary purpose of a rotor is to capture the kinetic energy present in the wind and transform it into mechanical energy through rotation.

    A rotor is typically connected to the turbine’s blades. This forms a critical link in the energy conversion process. As the wind interacts with the blades, it induces rotational movement in the rotor. This rotational motion is then transmitted to a generator, where the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. The efficiency of this conversion process relies heavily on the design and performance of the rotor.

    The Technologies Behind Wind Energy

    Today’s wind turbines are highly sophisticated machines optimized for efficiency and durability. Here are some key technological aspects to consider:

    • Blade design: Modern wind turbine blades are aerodynamically designed for maximum efficiency. They are longer and more slender, capturing more wind energy.
    • Materials and manufacturing: Manufacturers like ESPE Manufacturing Co., Inc. play a critical role by producing essential components like electrical insulation insulators. These insulators made from materials like Formex, Nomex, and fishpaper are vital for wind turbine reliability and safety.
    • Data analytics: Wind farms employ data analytics to optimize turbine performance. Real-time monitoring and predictive maintenance help ensure consistent energy production.
    • Energy storage: Integrating wind energy into the power grid often involves energy storage solutions, such as batteries, to store excess energy during windy periods.

    Economic and Environmental Benefits

    Here’s why wind power makes sense from a financial and environmental perspective:

    • Steady income streams: Wind farms offer a reliable income stream through power purchase agreements (PPAs) or government incentives, making them attractive investments.
    • Job creation: The wind energy sector contributes to local economies by creating jobs in manufacturing, installation, maintenance, and operations.
    • Energy cost savings: Businesses that invest in wind energy can enjoy long-term energy cost stability, reducing their reliance on fossil fuels.
    • Carbon emissions reduction: Wind energy produces zero direct emissions and reduces greenhouse gases.
    • Biodiversity protection: Properly sited wind farms can coexist with wildlife and contribute to habitat conservation efforts.

    Challenges in Wind Energy Integration

    Despite its tremendous potential, electrical generation from wind faces several integration and implementation challenges. Wind isn’t a constant energy source, and this variability leads to fluctuations in energy production. In addition, grid integration poses a significant hurdle. Integrating wind power into existing power grids is a complex task that often demands substantial upgrades and the implementation of advanced grid management systems.

    We must also consider the critical aspect of environmental impact assessment. To harness wind power responsibly, it’s vital to ensure that wind farms are sited in a way that minimizes their environmental footprint. This entails comprehensive assessments and mitigation strategies to address potential negative impacts on ecosystems and communities.

    Innovations in Electrical Generation From Wind Energy

    Numerous trends are shaping the future of wind energy. For instance, floating wind turbines have extended the reach of offshore wind energy into deeper waters. Additionally, integrating hybrid systems which combine wind energy with other renewable sources like solar panels and energy storage ensures a continuous and reliable energy supply.

    Smart grids are also transforming the management of variable wind power. These intelligent grids enable real-time monitoring and control of energy flow, enhancing the reliability and stability of power distribution.

    Embracing Wind Power With ESPE Manufacturing for a Sustainable Future

    Harness the power of wind energy with ESPE Manufacturing Co., Inc. We are your number one source of electrical insulation materials and related components to power your wind turbine systems! Our state-of-the-art facilities and skilled professionals are dedicated to creating high-quality, durable, and efficient components that can withstand the harshest weather conditions.

    Contact us today to learn more about our offerings.

  4. Printing on Fabricated Products

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    Many parts and components we manufacture here at ESPE provide protection to personnel by covering electrical components and providing a barrier between the electric field and any conductive enclosure. When circuitry can be accessed, it is advisable to provide adequate warning markings to alert people to the dangerous voltages that the barriers isolate.

    While our typical end use is protecting from electrical shock hazards, our products can be printed with pinch-point hazards, hot surface warnings, and even common part numbers or folding instructions for easy assembly. Stickers and labels can provide temporary warnings sometimes, but they will fade and can be easily removed or tampered with.

    ESPE will work to provide permanent visual warnings to your fabricated barriers and coverings, protecting end users throughout the life of the product or machinery they go in. In this blog post, we’ll provide more details about printed product fabrication, pairing the correct fabrication method with the best printing method for the job.

    Techniques of Fabrication

    Printed products are produced in various methods that involve different processes and materials, including:

    1. Steel Rule Die Cutting

    Steel Rule Die cutting uses a single or several long blades bent to the part’s final dimensions, inlaid in a large flat board with grooves and punches matching the bent steel blade. The die is then set in a hydraulic press that stamps the steel blade into the material at extreme pressures, cutting scoring, and perforating shapes on materials as they progress through the machine. This production method is most conducive to embossing, but doing so increases die costs and requires remanufacturing of the dies for revisions of the design or wording.

    2. Stamping

    Stamping involves using a die to press a shape or design into a material using mechanical force. This process creates patterns on materials and could imprint lettering, but like embossing, it increases costs and requires remanufacturing upon revisions.

    3. Laser Cutting

    Laser cutting uses a high-powered laser to cut through or engrave materials. The laser’s intense heat melts and burns away the material at the beam’s focal point. Computer-controlled motion guides the laser over the material, creating precise cuts or patterns. Engraving with lasers can create sophisticated patterns and images at varying intensities to create depth with a resolution of up to 600 dpi. However, this method can be costly, as the time and energy needed to create a single 6″ x 6″ image at maximum resolution can take more time than cutting out hundreds of parts.

    4. Drag Knife Cutting

    Also referred to by us as digital die cutting, this method uses a sharp carbide knife on a large plotter to cut out shapes of nearly any dimension or complexity with very little initial investment in tooling. The same head that drags the knife can drag a pen; this is called plotting and can be used to drag around a ballpoint pen or felt marker to plot precise markings and letterings. While limited to a single color, it is the most economical method regarding upfront cost and revision for simple lettering. The machine can handle long, complicated drawings but, like laser engraving, can take much machine time.

    5. Routing

    Routing involves moving a fast spinning drill bit to cut out shapes and parts either too hard or too thick for other machining methods to accomplish cleanly. The depth and routing tool can be changed within the same setup to engrave or etch the part’s surface; this will leave a permanent channel in the material and can be revised easily but may not be the most visible, suiting this method best for part numbers or channels.

    Types of Printing Methods

    Here’s an overview of some key printing methods:

    1. Silk Screening

    Commonly referred to as screen printing, this method involves pressing ink through a mesh screen onto a part, creating images, patterns, or text. It’s the go-to choice for producing vivid designs in a repeatable fashion, as it can use any color of ink in any shape by layering different colors.

    2. Ink Printing

    This traditional yet effective method employs inked plates to transfer designs onto materials. It’s widely used for producing high-quality images on paper, packaging, cloth, and various surfaces. This is perhaps the highest fidelity printing method but could be considered overkill for hazard labels and part numbers.

    3. Scribing/Etching

    Scribing or etching involves creating markings on a material’s surface through mechanical means. This technique is commonly used for engraving or marking metals, producing permanent and legible markings, such as serial numbers. This is not to be confused with chemical etching, which is another process entirely

    4. Hot Stamping

    Hot stamping involves pressing heated dies onto foil and transferring a thin layer of pigment or metallic material onto a substrate. This method is rudimentary as it relies on set block lettering to achieve simple indications like a multi-position switch. Being limited to a few letters and a small surface area limits the capabilities of hot stamping to niche situations but can be an economical option when the desired lettering is minimal.

    5. Plotting

    This method employs computer instructions to drag pens or markers across paper or other materials. Originally used for technical drawings, the technology has been co-opted to mark finished products. Plotting is limited to a single pen or marker color but can be done while other production methods are deployed, saving setup and production time.

    6. Embossing

    Embossing raises the design from the material’s surface by pressing it between two dies. This method adds texture, depth, and decorative elements to paper, plastic, and metal. The result is a tactile and visually appealing effect that enhances the overall appearance. While this method works best with rigid metals like a license plate, certain plastics also take well to embossed lettering like a credit card number.

    7. Engraving

    Engravings are cut or carved designs, text, or patterns into a material’s surface using mechanical force or lasers. We can create intricate and lasting markings on surfaces; however, the path the tool or laser needs to travel to complete the engraving is typically many times the length of the exterior of the part and, as such, can be a significant percentage of the overall machine time and thus cost per part.

    This method should be limited to harsh outdoor environments where even inks can break down highly intricate and visually significant cosmetically focused parts. An acrylic port hole cover may need permanent engravings to indicate fluid level, or a channel may be cut behind a gasket to provide airflow behind an otherwise flat plate.

    Experience the Potential of Printed Product Fabrication With ESPE Manufacturing Co.

    Ready to evolve your manufacturing business? Partner with ESPE Manufacturing Co., Inc.! We are a trusted company prepared to provide expert guidance and innovative solutions to make your vision tangible. We cater to various industries with our wide range of services, including fabrication, laser cutting, stamping, and more!

    Take the next step and contact us to learn more. You may also request a quote to transform your creative ideas into tangible products today!

  5. Flame Retardant Properties of Polypropylene (Formex, Nomex, Fishpaper)

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    Flame retardancy is important in electronic and electrical equipment materials to comply with fire safety standards. Polypropylene is a versatile material with a flame retardant capability, making it popular in various manufacturing applications.

    This article will explore the flame retardant properties of polypropylene, specifically Formex, Nomex, and Fishpaper — the three types used by ESPE Manufacturing Co. We will delve into the features behind their flame retardancy and their applications.

    What Is Flame Retardancy?

    Flame retardant properties are the capacity of a material to hinder the progression of flames or delay the onset of a fire. They are particularly important in industries prioritizing fire safety, such as construction, transportation, and electronics and electrical equipment.

    The function of flame-resistant compounds is to inhibit the chemical reactions that occur during combustion. This reduces the material’s combustibility and contribution to the spread of fire.

    Numerous techniques exist for applying flame resistance to materials. These include using chemicals, coatings, and flame retardant fibers or fillers within the substance.

    Polypropylene Materials

    ESPE Manufacturing Co. works with various electrical insulating materials to meet the needs of various applications. Here are some of the materials we employ and provide:


    Formex is a type of electrical insulation material made from flame retardant polypropylene. It prevents electrically charged components from arcing and protects the users, equipment, and maintenance personnel. Its properties also ensure that the material will not melt or combust up to 115 °C (239 °F).

    This material has received a UL 94V-0 rating, indicating that it meets specific flame resistance criteria and has undergone Underwriters Laboratories (UL) testing. This proves that they do not propagate flames and extinguish them on their own within a few seconds.


    Nomex is a meta-aramid material renowned for its ability to resist flames, which can be attributed to its distinctive chemical composition. The material consists of polyamide molecules with long chains, making them highly heat-resistant and difficult to ignite. When exposed to high temperatures, the polymer chains within Nomex link together. This forms a protective layer of char that insulates the material and slows down the combustion process.

    This polypropylene type has a wide temperature range from -196 °C (-320 °F) to 250 °C (482 °F) without significant degradation in its mechanical properties. This makes it suitable for high-temperature environments, such as aerospace, marine, electrical, and automotive industries. Furthermore, it has been extensively tested and has received the UL 94V-0 rating.

    Fishpaper and Vulcanized Fiber

    Fishpaper is an electrical insulation material composed of thin layers of paper that have been treated with a thermosetting resin. The resin acts as a binding agent, holding the layers of paper together and providing the material with its flame retardant properties. Due to this composition, fishpaper has a high flame resistance and is not prone to igniting or supporting combustion.

    This material has moderate heat resistance and can withstand up to 120 °C (248 °F). This temperature range is ideal for electrical insulation applications with a moderate heat exposure risk. However, specialized grades can withstand higher temperatures of up to 155 °C (311 °F) or even 180 °C (356 °F). It has also received the UL 94V-0 rating.

    Partner With ESPE Manufacturing Co. for Premium Electrical Insulation Materials

    ESPE Manufacturing has been a trusted provider of electrical insulators for more than 70 years! We serve a wide range of markets and have a deep understanding of our materials’ unique properties. We also have an expert team that can assist you in selecting the most suitable material for your specific needs.

    Contact us today to discover more about our top-quality products and services! You can also request a quote, and we will gladly help you with your needs.

  6. Materials ESPE Works With and Their Dielectric Properties

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    Using materials with insulative properties has become crucial due to the increasing need for energy conservation. These materials are often employed in various industrial applications — such as construction, transportation, and packaging — to enhance energy efficiency and reduce overall consumption. They are also crucial in maintaining indoor temperatures, reducing noise pollution, and preventing energy loss.

    ESPE Manufacturing Co. is a trusted supplier of electrical insulators, including washers, gaskets, and fabricated plastic parts. We also specialize in the fabrication and conversion of non-metallic materials, allowing us to serve diverse markets and industries.

    In this article, we will take a closer look at the materials we at ESPE work with and their respective dielectric properties.

    What Are Dielectric Properties?

    Dielectric properties are the electrical characteristics of a material that acts as an insulator, impeding the flow of electricity. These properties play a vital role in industries where electrical insulation is critical, such as telecommunications, electronics, and power transmission.

    Here are three essential dielectric properties of a material:

    • Dielectric Constant: Also known as relative permittivity, this is the measure of how well a specific material can store electrical energy.
    • Dielectric Strength: This is the maximum electric field strength that a material can withstand before breaking down.
    • Loss Tangent: This is the energy lost as heat when a dielectric material is subjected to an alternating electric field.

    Dielectric Materials and Their Properties

    ESPE works with several electrical insulating materials to cater to diverse applications. Listed below are some of the materials we use and offer:


    Formex is an insulating material recognized for its flame-retardant insulation and adaptability for various applications. It possesses excellent dielectric strength, with 0.010-inch Formex GK having 2200 V/mil strength. This makes it highly resistant to electrical surges. Additionally, it has a UL 94V-0 Flame Class Rating that meets global safety standards.

    The exceptional dielectric properties of Formex are further enhanced by its non-hygroscopic quality, which means that it has an extremely low moisture absorption rate of less than 0.06%. This characteristic enables the material to retain its electrical insulation properties for an extended period.


    ESPE specializes in the design, production, and distribution of Nomex materials, such as Nomex papers and Nomex pressboards. The formulation of these products involves incorporating meta-aramid polymers into their great, heat-resistant synthetic fibers. As a result, they possess outstanding electrical insulating properties and resistance to chemicals, heat, and radiation.

    Nomex Type 410 is an insulation paper providing exceptional dielectric strength, mechanical toughness, flexibility, and resilience. It is available in 12 different thicknesses, ranging from 0.05 to 0.76 mm, for almost any electrical sheet insulation application. Specifically, the 0.010-inch Nomex paper has a dielectric strength of 815 V/mil, making it an excellent choice for high-voltage uses.

    Fishpaper and Vulcanized Fiber

    At ESPE, we offer a wide variety of vulcanized fiber and fishpaper products. Vulcanized fiber is a chemically pure cellulose material that is environmentally friendly as it contains no adhesives or resins. This low-pressure laminate is produced by reacting cotton or natural wood with various chemicals, including acids, bases, and zinc chloride.

    Meanwhile, fishpaper is an insulating board or paper made from vulcanized cotton. It is a flexible material easily cut and shaped to fit around electrical components. As a result, it is commonly used to insulate electric motors, generators, and transformers.

    A 0.015-inch vulcanized fiber boasts a moderate dielectric strength of 200 V/mil. It is useful for many electrical insulation applications and can provide adequate protection against electrical surges and breakdowns.

    ESPE Manufacturing: Your Trusted Partner for High-Quality Electrical Insulation Materials

    At ESPE Manufacturing, we have over 70 years of experience developing and distributing electrical insulators. Our expert team can also help you choose the best material for your requirements, as we cater to multiple markets and understand materials’ distinct properties.

    Get in touch with us today to learn more about our products and services or to request a quote. Let ESPE be your trusted partner for all your electrical insulator needs!

  7. Material Spotlight: Fishpaper & Vulcanized Fibre

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    Click to ExpandMaterial-Spotlight-Fishpaper-Vulcanized-Fibre

    Even though electricity is one of the breakthrough technologies that are most frequently utilized and relied upon, it is also one of the most hazardous when mishandled or when its uses are misunderstood. Therefore, electrical insulation has to play its role. Non-metallic materials — such as plastic, rubber, or PVC — are frequently used to create insulation. These materials are designed to limit the current flow between conductors.

    Fishpaper and vulcanized fibre sheets are multi-functional engineering materials used in various mechanical and electrical applications, particularly electrical insulation. Although they may appear similar to one another, they have characteristic differences. Mechanically, these materials do not share the same tensile strength and tensile modulus, and their electrical properties — such as dielectric strength and arc resistance — also differ.

    Let’s define what these two materials are.

    Fishpaper and Vulcanized Fibre

    The term “fishpaper” refers to electrical-grade vulcanized fibre sheets in general. It is a vulcanized cotton electrical insulation board or paper easily cut and shaped to insulate electric motors, generators, and transformers. This material is also a good choice for oil-filled transformers.

    On the other hand, a vulcanized fibre is a chemically natural cellulose material that is free of adhesives and resins, making it environmentally friendly. It is a low-pressure laminate created by the reaction of cotton or natural wood with various chemicals such as acids, bases, and zinc chloride. Aside from that, vulcanized fibre sheets can be formed, slit, molded, or wound into tubes for use in various applications.

    Vulcanized fibre can also be used for including washers, insulating plates, switch and appliance insulation, electric motor insulation, gaskets, automobile parts, luggage, patterns, and more.

    Advantages of Fishpaper and Vulcanized Fibre

    The following are the advantages of using fishpaper and vulcanized fibre:

    • Fishpaper and vulcanized fibre have excellent dielectric properties and are suitable for oil-filled inductors.
    • Mechanical strength. Because it is fibrous, fishpaper electrical insulation has high mechanical strength.
    • Heat resistance. Cellulosic paper is more heat-resistant than many plastic materials because it is hard and wear-resistant.
    • At low temperatures, fishpaper and vulcanized fibre retain more flexibility than plastic materials.
    • Cost-effective. Fishpaper and vulcanized fibre are suitable for diverse general-purpose applications due to their size, versatility, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and tear,

    Fishpaper and Vulcanized Fibre As Insulators

    Fishpaper and vulcanized fibre sheets are effective electrical insulators for various reasons. One of those is that they are durable and flexible, with unique combinations of strength and formability. Fishpaper is also insoluble in common solvents like benzene, petroleum, alcohol, ammonia, turpentine, naphtha, and ether.

    Furthermore, fishpaper has a very light property, weighing roughly half the weight of aluminum. As a result, it’s an excellent insulator for applications where weight reduction is essential for maintaining maximum product performance and optimizing fuel efficiency. Some types of fishpaper insulation and vulcanized fibre — such as those that comply with UL-94 and ASTM D-365 standards — are also used in components such as wear plates, arc chutes, and circuit breaker baffles.

    In addition to being used as electrical insulators, here are some of the other applications of electrical-grade fishpaper insulation in the mechanical and electrical industries:

    • Electronic devices
    • Automotive parts and components
    • Circuit breakers
    • Electrical instruments
    • Gaskets
    • Fuse tubes
    • Railroad track installation

    On the other hand, the following are the common applications of vulcanized fibre:

    • Washers
    • Insulating plates
    • Switch and appliance insulation
    • Electric motor
    • Automobile parts
    • Luggage
    • Gaskets

    ESPE Manufacturing Co., Inc. Services

    Using quality components for insulation ensures electrical safety and helps retain the integrity of various equipment and devices. Not only is insulation crucial in avoiding accidents and property destruction, but it also protects the value of your products by preventing electrical damage and prolonging the lifespan of various industrial and commercial goods and equipment.

    ESPE Manufacturing Co., Inc. manufactures a diverse range of vulcanized fibre and fishpaper products to meet the specific needs of our customers. Our employees are trained for the job, whether prototyping an intricate part on our laser or running production quantities on our mechanical and hydraulic cutting presses. So if you need vulcanized fibre sheets and fishpaper insulation products, ESPE has one of the Midwest’s most extensive inventories!

    To find a specific insulation product that works for you, you can view our catalog or contact us if you have any questions or inquiries.

  8. Guide: What Is Stamping?

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    Click to ExpandGuide-What-Is-Stamping

    As the global markets continuously evolve, the demand to quickly produce large quantities of high-quality complex parts rises simultaneously. Because of this, stamping, a popular manufacturing process, has been sought-after by many manufacturers as a cost-effective and efficient solution to large-quantity manufacturing needs in various industries.

    One of the popular processes in the manufacturing industry is metal stamping. However, non-metal stamping, especially stamped parts made from electrical insulation and barrier materials, is also gaining popularity among many manufacturers in fabricating different components for various purposes.

    As a leading supplier of a large inventory of stamped products, ESPE Manufacturing Co. specializes in stamping electrical insulation, barrier materials, and other non-metallic materials such as plastic, rubber, paper, and more! This article will walk you through what stamping is in the manufacturing industry, its benefits, and its applications.

    Stamping In Manufacturing

    Also referred to as pressing, stamping is a manufacturing process of converting or altering flat sheets into different shapes to produce a valuable component or part. The process is usually carried out on sheet metal. But it can also be used on other non-metal materials, including a broad range of specialty polymers, aramid papers, neoprene, acrylic, and more.

    The stamping process involves placing your material of choice in a stamping press where a tool and die surface form the workpiece into a final shape. Parts or components produced from stamping are used in automotive, electronics, medical, defense, aerospace, and many other sectors.

    Non-Metal Stamping Operation

    ESPE’s stamping operations involve slitting material and feeding it into the presses, where stamping takes place at 50-200 strokes per minute.

    When selecting a non-metal material for a stamping operation, it is essential to consider a few factors to achieve optimal production and performance, including the material’s properties and characteristics.

    Manufacturers should look at the material’s mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties, as well as its durability and performance under normal and high-stress operating conditions. Moreover, the design for stamping should also meet the application’s absorption, compression, and alignment requirements.

    Benefits Of Stamping

    Manufacturers utilize the stamping technique because it is time- and cost-efficient. Specifically, stamping provides the following advantages:


    Stamping reaches a micron-level accuracy on the cuts applied to the sheet material. Hence, this process’s sophistication and intricate nature allow manufacturers to shape and sell parts in the most complex forms at the highest quality.

    Cost Efficiency

    Stamping enables manufacturers to mass produce parts with lower labor costs, which helps to achieve lesser expenditures and higher profit.


    Detailed part specifications are easily achieved through stamping, as it allows for alteration of the shape and design of material into any desired form, even the more complex ones.

    Advantages of Non-Metallic Stamping

    In addition to the general benefits of stamping, there are a couple of advantages in stamping non-metallic parts and products, like electrical barriers and insulators, including:

    Mass Production

    The tools that shape and cut sheet materials are called stamping dies. These dies can be used for multiple production runs or swapped out quickly for different parts, making the stamping process fast and efficient.

    Higher Accuracy

    With durable dies set up, the stamping process can produce high volumes of identical parts with strict tolerances.


    The common industries that utilize stamped electrical barriers and insulators, and other non-metallic parts and components include:

    • Aerospace
    • Agriculture
    • Architecture
    • Automotive
    • Dental
    • Electronics
    • Food and Beverage
    • Machine tools
    • Marine
    • Medical
    • Oil and gas
    • Packaging
    • Renewable energy
    • And more

    Top-Quality Stamping Services At ESPE Manufacturing Co.

    ESPE Manufacturing Co. understands the fundamental role of stamping in responding to the manufacturing industry’s growing demands for different components or custom parts supply. We live up to our reputation as the technical authority in producing the best quality stamped parts.

    Our stamping outputs are made from electrical insulation and barrier materials, such as ITW Formex®, ITW Statex®, and Nomex®, as well as vulcanized fiber and fishpaper. We also offer non-metal materials like polymers, vinyl, acrylic, nylon, and aramid papers. We manufacture thousands of products from stamping, such as washers, arc chutes, and other insulators — from prototype to production quantities.

    ESPE Manufacturing Co. is your partner for proficient and top-quality stamping operations that involve compound die, progressive die, and punch press, which allow us to sustain and meet any geometric complexities, designs, and specifications!

    Contact us directly to learn more about our stamping capabilities or request a quote today, and our friendly experts will be happy to assist you.

  9. Material Spotlight: Nomex

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    Click to ExpandMaterial Spotlight: Nomex

    A suitable electrical insulator can help prevent electric shocks and other electricity-related hazards. But how would you know which products are the best and most reliable? Don’t fret! ESPE Manufacturing Co., Inc. got you covered! We have one of the most extensive inventories of electrical insulation in the Midwest.

    In this article, we feature our Nomex product lines, one of the high-quality products we designed, manufactured, and distributed. We vigorously promote our customized Nomex products to meet the wide range of applications requiring excellent compact insulation materials.

    So, What Is Nomex?

    Nomex is a flame-resistant material developed by DuPont in the early 1960s and was first commercialized in 1967. It is typically available in two forms: paper, or rolls of thin gauge material, and pressboard, or sheets of medium or thick gauge material. What’s more, Nomex is chemical, thermal, and radiation resistant, allowing it to strengthen and extend the life of your products.

    When it comes to electrical insulation, it has long gained recognition for exceptional quality and dependability. Use it appropriately, and it will extend the useful life of your electrical system while decreasing the likelihood of it malfunctioning.

    What Are Electrical Insulators, And Why Are They Important?

    Electrical insulators, as the name implies, are synthetic materials that resist the current that flows through them. Simply put, electricity does not pass through these materials because the primary function of insulators is to prevent electricity from flowing outside of conductors and contain it only where it is supposed to flow.

    These materials are essential in preventing electrical hazards such as electricity leakage and electric shock. Short circuits with low current flows, which are frequently caused by poor electrical insulation, are often the source of leaks. On the other hand, electric shocks occur when a person comes into contact with a source of electric energy. Take note that the results of these shocks can range from no injury to death.

    To better understand how electrical insulators work, examine how electrical cables are made and structured. These cables are typically filled with wires made of metals such as copper, aluminum, and silver. The wires serve as electrical conductors, allowing electricity to flow freely. After securing the inside of the cables, coatings are added to act as insulators, and they only allow electricity to flow within the cord. Nylon, PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), and wire enamels are some commonly used standard coatings.

    One of the most crucial things to remember is that electrical insulators are critical and must be used correctly. Each has resistance value, so choosing the best material for your application is vital.

    What Is Nomex Insulation Paper, And Other Nomex Types?

    Nomex 410 is the original Nomex insulation paper widely used in various electrical equipment applications, including sheet insulation and manufacturing of electrical components. It possesses high-performance insulation with excellent intrinsic material capacity, electrical durability, flexibility, and resilience. It is sold in rolls with thicknesses ranging from 0.002-0.03 in (0.05-0.76 mm) to accommodate a wide range of gravities.

    Some of the features of Nomex 410 include:

    • Excellent heat-resistance ability and does not melt easily
    • Quality thermal stability that can withstand temperatures up to 220°C
    • Satisfactory resistance to splitting and scraping
    • Intrinsic dielectric strength
    • Broad chemical compatibility that can resist solvents, acids, and alkalis

    Additionally, some of the applications of Nomex 410 are:

    • Wire and cable industry
    • Welding equipment
    • Mining equipment
    • Engine and motors industry
    • Electrical and electronic industry

    We also offer other available Nomex products which cover every type of Nomex paper and pressboard and serve your custom-manufactured fabricated parts:

    Nomex 993 is a sheet pressboard material available in thicknesses ranging from 0.04-0.16 in (1.0-4.0 mm) for specific gravities. This product can preserve its general structure and resistance while conforming to minor imperfections on the exterior it is lining. Nomex 993 also seals well with electrical contacts.

    Nomex 994 is the denser version of Nomex 993. It is typically used in similar but more heavyweight applications. It is available in thicknesses of 0.04-0.380 in (1.0-9.6 mm) and can withstand compressive loads due to its superior stability and excellent absorption.

    Let ESPE Handle All Your Nomex Needs!

    ESPE Manufacturing Co., Inc. is ready to help you find the best insulation solution for your electrical systems. With a complete stock of Nomex 410, Nomex 993, and Nomex 994 product lines available, combined with our full suite of fabrication and manufacturing capabilities, we ensure to be your go-to source for Nomex rolls, sheets, and other products.

    We can help you develop and manufacture prototypes and customized parts in low or mass-producing orders at the quickest turnaround time possible. React to us and request a quote for your next project.

  10. Formex for Insulation of Batteries & Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

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    Electrical insulation involves non-electrically conductive material used to control the flow of electricity and protect sensitive components. Various materials can be used, such as rubber, plastic or material like Formex for insulation. These materials work by blocking the passage of electrons more effectively than semiconducting and conducting materials. This means that they can be used as a protective barrier around the conductor, ensuring energy stays on a specific path and doesn’t interact with other components, causing short-circuiting.

    Importance of PCB & Battery Insulation

    In applications involving PCBs, insulation acts as the dielectric material used to separate conducting elements and layers. Most PCBs used today are multilayered, which means multiple adhesion points are present. This increased board height requires more soldering and makes proper insulation vital to the board’s effectiveness. In PCB applications, having a thorough understanding of your PCB’s construction is the best way to ensure it’s insulated adequately and can operate at its highest potential.

    Another key application for electrical insulation is in batteries. Electrical vehicle batteries, for example, require insulation between each component to ensure no electrical arc can arise between battery components. This is a necessary precaution to prevent fires, shocks, high temperatures, short circuits, and more.

    When choosing a material to insulate PCBs and batteries, there are several factors that should be considered. One of the primary concerns is the material’s thickness in relation to its efficiency. Insulating material needs to be highly effective, but thickness also needs to be taken into account. Certain insulation applications feature highly compact components that are not suited to a particularly thick material.

    It’s also important to consider what type of processing your insulator should undergo. Certain insulation materials are significantly easier to process than others and, depending on your application, this may be a significant concern. However, an easy-to-process material might not perform according to your required standards. Insulation weight and cost-to-function ratio should also be factored into decision-making. For PCB and battery insulation applications, a particularly high-performing material is ITW Formex. This material is uniquely suited to PCB and battery applications, meeting all of the typical demands.

    Why Formex?

    ITW Formex is ideal for protecting delicate components and is widely used throughout many applications. It offers excellent dielectric strength and provides reliable mechanical protection. Formex can be formed into even the most complex three-dimensional shapes by die-cutting, scoring, and bending. In PCB insulation applications, Formex is used for barriers between PC boards as well as between PC boards and housings.

    Formex electrical insulation is made from polypropylene, which is lightweight and inexpensive, while meeting rigorous electrical barrier and insulation requirements. With a flame class rating of UL 94V-0, Formex has excellent flame-retardant properties and will not combust or melt at temperatures up to 239° F.

    Additionally, ITW Formex features several key characteristics that allow it to outperform other insulation materials, such as preventing electrically charged components from arcing. Formex is ideal for many types of EV battery applications as it protects from contact corrosion, provides EMI shielding capabilities, and more. For electric vehicle battery applications, Formex stands up to chemical, mechanical, and environmental demands.

    ESPE Manufacturing: Your Source for Reliable Insulation

    PCBs and batteries are used throughout nearly every industry and require high performing, reliable insulation. Formex contains many beneficial characteristics that make it ideally suited to these applications. In addition to being uniquely easy to shape, it also features notable strength and valuable fire-retardant properties, all while being cost-effective.

    ESPE Manufacturing Co., Inc., has been providing high-quality electrical insulation solutions since 1948 and features one of the largest inventories in the Midwest. We offer ITW Formex rolls and sheets and carry several varieties suitable for a wide selection of applications. Our experts can help you select the best type for your project. Browse our catalog or contact us to get started. To partner with us and take advantage of Formex insulation for your application, request a quote today.